Pakistan Studies 4 Mark Questions

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The refugee crises the greatest problem that jinnah faced in governing pakistan in the years 1947-8. Give reasons for your answer. [14]
I need the answer for this question as soon as possible...please help!
 
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The refugee crises the greatest problem that jinnah faced in governing pakistan in the years 1947-8. Give reasons for your answer. [14]
I need the answer for this question as soon as possible...please help!
Answer: In the years immediately before partition, there was widespread violence between the Muslim and non-Muslim communities across India. Although Congress and the Muslim League called for calm, the summer of 1947 saw rioting which led to numerous deaths. When the boundary of the two nations was demarcated and announced in August 1947, things became even worse. Millions of people found themselves living in the ‘wrong’ country and became victims of communal attacks. The only answer was for Muslims to move into Pakistan and non-Muslims to move into India. So began one of the largest migrations ever witnessed in the history of mankind – and also some of the worst scenes of communal violence.
Immediately after independence, Quaid e Azam had to deal with a massive refugee problem: while 5.3 million Hindus fled from Punjab and Sindh into India, 5.9 million Muslims fled from India into West Pakistan. Also, 3.3 million Hindus fled East Bengal, and 1.3 million Muslims fled from India into East Bengal. Some moved willingly, taking as many of their possessions with them as they could. Others fled from violence and often arrived in their new country with nothing at all. The violence was sometimes orchestrated by the local authorities, and many Muslim historians believe that Hindus and Sikhs had an organized programmed for the massacre of Muslim refugees. In the non-Muslim princely states, there were examples of state troops being used to support attacks on Muslims. It is also true, however, that atrocities were carried out by Muslims as a tide of communal hatred swept across the subcontinent in late 1947. By the end of 1947, India and Pakistan were so concerned about the communal violence that they began to co-operate in trying to control it. This led to more orderly evacuation of refugees from one country to the other, but it did not completely end the violence.
However he had to face many other major problems like In June 1947, it was agreed that Pakistan would be paid 750 million rupees of the 4 billion rupees in the Reserve Bank. The first 200 million rupees were paid. Then war broke out over Kashmir. India refused to pay the rest, saying Pakistan would only use it to buy arms to fight against India. If Pakistan stopped fighting and agreed that Kashmir should be an Indian possession, then the rest would be paid. What the Indian government hoped was that by withholding the money, Pakistan would become bankrupt. It was only after Gandhi went on hunger strike that a further 500 million rupees was paid. 50 million rupees still remain unpaid. Pakistan also needed armed forces and military equipment to ensure its security. The British were, at first, reluctant to divide the armed forces but eventually it was agreed that they should be split 36%: 44% between Pakistan and India. The armed forces personnel were given freedom to opt for whichever country they wanted. Muslim regiments went to Pakistan and non-Muslim to India. It was agreed to split the army along religious lines Pakistan received 6 Armored divisions, 8 Artillery divisions and 8 Infantry division only as compared to India’s 14, 40 and 21.
A big problem for the Pakistan army was that their army of 150,000 men needed 4,000 officers. There were only 2,500 trained Muslim officers, as the British Indian army had favored Hindu officers. While it was possible to train some men up from ordinary soldiers, Jinnah was forced to take 500 British officers temporarily. These were mostly at the highest rank, for this was where there were no Muslim officers at all. But as Pakistan faced almost immediate war with India over Kashmir, it needed the best army it could raise, no matter who was leading it. In other military matters, the Indians once again failed to keep to the agreement. They did not want to see Pakistan become strong militarily, especially as they were fighting in Kashmir. All 16 ordnance factories were in India, which refused to hand any over. Consequently, Pakistan had no factories capable of making military goods. India eventually agreed to pay 60 million rupees in lieu of handing over ordnance factories and this was used by the Pakistani government to build an ordnance factory at Wah. The military supplies which India agreed to hand over sometimes did not arrive, or when they did, they were often old, worn, damaged and obsolete. The result of the division of military assets in 1947 was that Pakistan started its life with a seriously under-resourced military force.
Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the Father of Pakistani Nation, functioned as Pakistan’s first Governor-General from 14 August 1947 up to his death on 11 September 1948, the Quaid’s period of Governor-Generalship is considered a landmark in Pakistan’s history because he along with the great Pakistani people solved these problems with courage except the Kashmir problem
 
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The refugee crises the greatest problem that jinnah faced in governing pakistan in the years 1947-8. Give reasons for your answer. [14]
I need the answer for this question as soon as possible...please help!
first u have to give a background i.e. Pakistan was partitioned in 1947 and M.A Jinnah was made the First GG of Pakistan.
there were many problems faced by newly born Pakistan. one of them was the refugee problem. then start explaining refugee problem first and give the most details for it. then explain all the problems like canal water dispute, Accession of princely states, social problems like housing for refugees, geographical problems like distance BTW east and west Pakistan , economic, political and military problems. then justify it: like for example the military assets given to Pakistan was the major issue as Pakistan was newly partitioned which was against India`s will. This endangered Pakistan from attacks from India after the Britishers left.
 
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irfan atique and navneet.kelash, thankyou so much for ur help :) .....
could u please also give me the answer for a couple of more questions,
1. why was nawaz sharaf dismissed from government in 1993? [7]
2. do you agree that the period 1988-99 was one in which pakistan made little sgnificant progess? [14]
3. why were relations between pakistan and afghanistan poor in the period 1947-1979? [7]
4. how succcessful were pakistan's relations with the USA in the period 1947-1988? [14]
 
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irfan atique and navneet.kelash, thankyou so much for ur help :) .....
could u please also give me the answer for a couple of more questions,
1. why was nawaz sharaf dismissed from government in 1993? [7]
2. do you agree that the period 1988-99 was one in which pakistan made little sgnificant progess? [14]
3. why were relations between pakistan and afghanistan poor in the period 1947-1979? [7]
4. how succcessful were pakistan's relations with the USA in the period 1947-1988? [14]
Q1:
Answer: The Nawaz-Ishaq dyarchy worked till early 1993. Both had allegedly protected each other in their corrupt practices, bungling public money and above all keeping Benazir Bhutto and her PPP at bay.[11] The President lost all patience when Nawaz Sharif addressed the Senate in March 1993, seeking the repeal of the 8th amendment. He decided that Nawaz Sharif must go, and to achieve this goal, he prepared ground by encouraging pliable MPs to resign from the Assembly. His emissaries contacted Benazir Bhutto, whom he kept on the run ever since he dismissed her government. Benazir's government, which was brushed out as "corrupt" by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan on Aug. 6, 1990, was washed spotlessly clean. All pending court cases against her and her husband were suddenly forgotten for making the ouster of Nawaz Sharif successful.
On the evening of 17th April 1993, Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif addressed the nation on TV and radio. It was an emotional address wherein he alleged, inter-alia, that disgruntled political elements were working against his government, hatching conspiracies to destablize it and trying to undo all the good work he was trying to do. All this, he alleged, was being done under the patronage of the President of Pakistan. He ended his speech with the following challenging words: "I will not resign; I will not dissolve the National Assembly and I will not be dictated."
Barely 24 hours after this challenging address was delivered, President Ghulam Ishaq Khan called a press conference on the evening of 18th April 1993, to declare that the speech of the Prime Minister and other acts of his government had convinced him that the government of the federation could not be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. The President also cited "maladministration, corruption, and nepotism and espousal of political violence", in dismissing the Sharif government. The President appointed Balakh Sher Mazari as the interim Prime Minister.
 
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Q1:
Answer: The Nawaz-Ishaq dyarchy worked till early 1993. Both had allegedly protected each other in their corrupt practices, bungling public money and above all keeping Benazir Bhutto and her PPP at bay.[11] The President lost all patience when Nawaz Sharif addressed the Senate in March 1993, seeking the repeal of the 8th amendment. He decided that Nawaz Sharif must go, and to achieve this goal, he prepared ground by encouraging pliable MPs to resign from the Assembly. His emissaries contacted Benazir Bhutto, whom he kept on the run ever since he dismissed her government. Benazir's government, which was brushed out as "corrupt" by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan on Aug. 6, 1990, was washed spotlessly clean. All pending court cases against her and her husband were suddenly forgotten for making the ouster of Nawaz Sharif successful.
On the evening of 17th April 1993, Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif addressed the nation on TV and radio. It was an emotional address wherein he alleged, inter-alia, that disgruntled political elements were working against his government, hatching conspiracies to destablize it and trying to undo all the good work he was trying to do. All this, he alleged, was being done under the patronage of the President of Pakistan. He ended his speech with the following challenging words: "I will not resign; I will not dissolve the National Assembly and I will not be dictated."
Barely 24 hours after this challenging address was delivered, President Ghulam Ishaq Khan called a press conference on the evening of 18th April 1993, to declare that the speech of the Prime Minister and other acts of his government had convinced him that the government of the federation could not be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. The President also cited "maladministration, corruption, and nepotism and espousal of political violence", in dismissing the Sharif government. The President appointed Balakh Sher Mazari as the interim Prime Minister.
thank you so much irfan :)
 
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you are welcome any-time, anything else you need just let me know
Sir, i dont get it...u hav detailed knowledge of islamic history + ur history answers are exceptionally brilliant + u spend a lot of ur time(i assume) here on XPC trying 2 help students wid their o'level exams....and my question is...CAN YOU FLY??:):):):) or r u some sort of robot???:):):):) cuz a lot of ppl i knw r not this nice!!!!:)
KEEP UP THE GUD WORK!!!​
 
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Sir, i dont get it...u hav detailed knowledge of islamic history + ur history answers are exceptionally brilliant + u spend a lot of ur time(i assume) here on XPC trying 2 help students wid their o'level exams....and my question is...CAN YOU FLY??:):):):) or r u some sort of robot???:):):):) cuz a lot of ppl i knw r not this nice!!!!:)
KEEP UP THE GUD WORK!!!​
guess what am not of this palnet
 
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