The annual production of the cement at the time of the creation of Pakistan was only 300000 tones per year. By 1954 the production increased to 660000 tonnes per annum against a demand of 1000000 tonnes per annum. At this time PIDC took initiative and established two cement factories Zealpak (240,000 tonnes) and Maple Leaf (100,000 tonnes) having a capacity of 340000 tones, thereby increasing the production to 1000000 tonnes per annum. Since then besides expansion of the existing plants, new plants have also established and besides producing SRC they are now also producing, Slag cement and white cement.
As a result of nationalization, a total of 10 cement units with an installed capacity of 2.8 million tonnes per annum. As a part of its privatization policy, the Government of Pakistan, has privatized 8 cement plants since 1992. At present there are more than 28 cement plants in Pakistan with installed capacity of over 19.5 million tonnes per annum. The present demand for cement in Pakistan is around 9.5 million tonnes per annum.
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Dragging a metal mesh bag along the bottom of the seafloor to catch bottom-dwelling shellfish (such as clams, scallops, and oysters).
Dredging causes significant habitat damage. The mesh bags also scoop up other types of marine life ― everything from fish to sponges ― which tend not to survive the experience.
Fishing with one very long fishing line that can extend, either near the ocean surface (pelagic long-lining) or just off the ocean floor (bottom long-lining), for up to 50 miles. Individual lines with hooks dangle from the central line.
In addition, when fishermen let their lines sit in the water for long periods of time before hauling them in, the bycatch numbers rise.
When the lines are sunk deeper, or when special hooks are used that can release bycatch, the environmental impact eases.
This involves towing a funnel-shaped net through the water, at varying depths.
When they’re used on or near the ocean floor, trawl nets can be really destructive to the habitat; bycatch is a concern too. When used higher up (usually to scoop up whole schools of fish), their impact is nowhere near as severe.
It consists of floating traps and weirs, which guide the fish into ever-smaller boxes, harm neither fish nor the environment.
Reef nets are used for salmon in the Northwest, they are shallow and are near-the-surface nets that the salmon swim right into, then are tipped into holding tanks.
Wire-mesh traps that lie on the bottom can damage the ocean floor if they’re dragged, which has led to their being banned in some parts of the world. Used properly, they’re usually not harmful.
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